A few things:
1. is the pain under your big toe?
2. do you get the pain when you're not on your board?
3. which color Superfeet were you using?
Definitely see a doctor and see if you can get a referral for a foot specialist. It kind of sound like you pronate a lot (your arches sort of collapse making your weight shift to your big toe). Between smashing the ball of your foot and aggravating it going toe-side, there could be some damage to the ligaments running under your foot. If the ligament is continuously pulling away from the bone, the bone will sort of reach out to the ligament to get it re-attached. So this pain may be caused by putting all your weight onto this little forming bone spur. If your doctor can shift your weight off that thing, your skeleton will absorb the spur in time.
You can also try a different color Superfeet - one with more support. If you were using the black one, try the yellow. If yellow, try the green. The orange one might be the best - lots of support and a shock pad under the forefoot. Two birds, one stone. Hope this helps.