Bindings are going to be specific with each company. Make sure you check which boot sizes go with which binding sizes.
I'm an 11.5 and I can still use a normal board, so I wouldn't imagine that you need a wide to be honest.
Definitely will need to know your style, bro. Do you see yourself doing mainly groomers or mainly park?
Timing wise you're perfect. 2009 stuff is already pretty cheap and 2010 stuff is starting to get there. Without going into any specifics, you'll probably want to stick with bigger name companies (Ride, K2, Rome, Burton, NeverSummer (won't be cheap), Lib-Tech, and GNU among some others). If you want to go real cheap, you can usually pick up some decent stuff used.
Now, regarding where your money should be spent...
Number one priority is a good fitting set of boots. To be completely honest, my boots cost just as much (if not a bit more) than my board did. It doesn't matter how good of a board you have, if your feet are hurting you won't have fun.
I'd go with a board next, then pick up some bindings.
YOU WILL BE BUYING A HELMET.