I haven't understood the difference between polarized and 100% UV protected. I am looking into goggles for mainly California riding and it is usually pretty sunny out most of the time. What would be more beneficial to my situation? What are the pros and cons of each?
UV protection simply means the lens blocks UV rays.
Polarization is glare blocking. I won't buy unpolarized sunglasses. However, for goggles, the only time I prefer polarized lenses is on bright days with good snow conditions. In flat light, they tend to wash out the terrain and in poor snow conditions, you can't spot icy patches because the glare that gives them away is blocked.
Polarization and UV protection is two totally different things. Polarization refers to a thin film that is laminated between the plastic of a lens to cut glare. UV protection refers to just that, UV protection. If your goggles come polarized, they will automatically have UV protection as well. Optically correct lenses protect up to 400nm of UV, if I remember correctly, even though the necessary regulated amount is actually at about 350nm.