Depends what your trying to do, to start your own company no you dont but you really do need to have a lot of in depth scientific knowledge on materials and chemistry...
As others said there is no "snowboarding" degree...really the only ones i could think that would apply would be Mechanical Engineers, Material Engineers, and Chemists..
even *I* could make a snowboard. i'm sure there are some good technical guidelines and commonly used material specifications on the internet. heck, almost everyone advertises what their main materials are anyways.
BUT, the part where it gets technical is in physical testing after a prototype is made via educated guessing as to what's going to work better for the specific application.
believe it or not, you might try something a little bit different thinking it'll do something good & end up doing some serious damage to yourself or others if they ride the thing in certain conditions. ie a board could break, or vibrate, or do any other funked up thing it's not supposed to.
the lab that true uses is pretty skyentifically high tech! and being such, true does r&d and prototype testing work for other brands because not every company has access to the highly specific nerd machines that can bend and shake a snowboard to and beyond it's limits while capturing a bunch of nerdtastic statistical data that biologists & kinesiologists can then analyze and determine it's fitness for use in a real world application.
here's a true story from true:
there once was a prototype board made by some other brand w/ some fancy schmancy new materials that they hypothesized would dampen vibration. true ran it's full gauntlet of geek tests on the shred stick and came up with data that said in reality the effect was the opposite... vibrations were amplified by the new material used and were shaking down at such a frequency that is said to potentially do damage to human bones. that would totally not be a good thing.
anyone can make a snowboard... but it takes an engineer & some other highly trained folks to work out the geeky stuff and make sure it's going to ride like it's supposed to!